Section 5: Lists of the paintings attributed to the painters Liang Kai, Mu Chi, and Yu Chien


Of 27 paintings listed for Liang Kai, there are 19 reproductions in the following pages {in Section 6}. One is a horizontal scroll, two are fan-shaped and the rest are vertical hanging scrolls. Only two have inscriptions that can be seen in the reproductions, which have been cropped to fit our book sizes. The cropping makes it hard, however, to judge the original size. The right sense of placement or whole composition is lost, besides the seals and the inscriptions.

Of 51 paintings listed for Mu Chi, there are 27 reproduced. Except for the landscapes, all of Mu Chi's pictures are vertical, but most of them are shallower than Liang Kai's. Four have inscriptions, still intact.

Of six paintings listed for Yu Chien, there are three in the following section. All have inscriptions and are of the horizontal format. Like Mu Chi's landscapes, they have been cut into sections that can be hung individually, if desired, rather than stored all of the time not actually being inspected, a consequence of the traditional long roll form.

The lists are organized by the artists in the order of the reproductions {in Section 6}, each entry including the name of the painting first. The owner, miscellaneous detail, best source of reproduction, and Osvald Siren's authenticity grades follow. Siren's grading is: A, A?, B, B?, C, C?, in descending order of possible authenticity. The books available for reproductions in this paper are fully listed (numbers 9 {Chung-kuo ming-hua chi}, 43 {Time}, 60, 61 {Siren}, and 75 {Waley}), with the other possible sources, in the Bibliography. To that I might here add that No. 60 occupies itself with numbers, No. 61 with plates. {Note: for a few listings, the online version adds a category: Internet.}

Liang Kai

Links to Liang Kai's paintings are here:

  1. Sakyamuni leaving his mountain retreat. Count Sakai. Signed. Siren #325. A. Internet: National Museum of Tokyo, Sakyamuni descending the mountain after asceticism. Dark with faint color. (Previous link broken:

  2. Three old trees by a slope in snow. Institute of Art Research, Tokyo. Ink and slight color on paper. Siren #333/ A?

  3. Landscape in snow, two men on horseback approaching a pass. National Museum, Tokyo. Signed. Siren #332. A

  4. Winter birds. M. Chas. Vignier, Paris. Not on Siren list. Waley.

  5. A pair of herons alighting on rocks. Hakone Museum. Signed fan-painting. Siren plate 75. B

  6. Winter landscape with a dry tree and birds. Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, Mass. Fan-shaped, signed. B?

  7. Wild geese and some reeds on the shore. Prince Yoshihisa Toku-gawa ("Hereditary Shogun of Japan"). Album leaf, signed. Toso Gemmin Meiga Taikan {73}, p. 82. B

  8. Top of a bare willow-tree, two birds in flight. Ink and slight color on silk. Signed, Album leaf. Hui-hua Kuan. B

  9. Sixteen arhats or lo-han. M. Abe. Long handscroll, signed and sealed. Colophons by Wang Wen-chin, p. 89. Possibly a Ming picture. B?

  10. Wang Hsi-chih writing on a fan. Manchu household Collection, Peiping. Several colophons of the Yuan period, one dated 1323. Poem by Chien-lung. Siren #327. A. Internet: National Palace Museum (China).

  11. Hui-neng chopping bamboo. National Museum, Tokyo. On paper. Siren #328. Internet: The sixth patriarch cutting bamboo. A. Internet: National Museum of Tokyo (link broken: See reproduction.

  12. Hui-neng tearing up a sutra. Count Matsudaira. Early Japanese copy after Liang Kai. Siren #329.

  13. Pu-tai carrying a sack. Murayama Collection. Signed. Kokka, No. 152. A?

  14. Li T'ai-po. National Museum, Tokyo. Ink on paper, 79 cm. by 30 cm. Signed. Siren #330. Internet: National Museum of Tokyo. Li Bo in stroll,

  15. An old Immortal in a loose open gown. Signed. Inscription by Chien-lung. Imperial Collection (formerly in Peking), Formosa. Time Magazine, May 6, 1957. B? Internet: Immortal in Splashed Ink. Album leaf, ink on paper, 48.7 x 27.7 cm. National Palace Museum (China).

  16. Two hermits. Asano. Kokka, No. 402. B

  17. Monk eating a pig's head; Monk holding a shrimp. Masuda. Kokka No. 114. C

  18. Han-shan and Shih-te. Hakone Museum. Toyo Bijutsu Taikan IX, plate 65; Matsudaira. Signed. Kokka, No. 40. B?

  19. An old drunkard. Count Matsudaira. Album leaf, signed. Kokka No. 145. B?

  20. A man standing between two old pines looking at a waterfall. Attributed by Wang Tsuan, Yuan period. C

  21. A man sleeping under a pine tree. P'ang Yuan-chi Collection, Ink on silk, album leaf. Hui-hua Kuan. A?

  22. Three old scholars under a pine tree. Ink on silk, album leaf, signed. Hui-hua Kuan. B?

  23. A fisherman with his nets returning home in snow. M. Hayasaki. Signed fan-painting. B

  24. A man reading and a grazing buffalo by a tree. Formerly possession of the Marquis Kuroda. Handscroll, signed. Toyo Bijutsu Taikan IX, plate 72; 9. C

  25. A man seated on a projecting cliff under a pine tree. M. Magoshi Collection, Signed. Toyo Bijutsu Taikan IX, Plate 69. B

  26. Seated arhat. Nezu. London Exhibition Catalogue 972. Attributed. C

  27. Figures. Owned by ? Album leaf. Pan Yuan-chi. Catalogue No. III. Attributed.

    Mu Chi

  28. Priest Chien-tzu playing with a shrimp. Executed before 1260, date of Yen An's inscription. Baron Masuda. Kokka No. 122. A

  29. The poet Lu Yu walking with a staff. Ti Ping-tzu. Seals of the painter and of the Yuan emperor Wen-tsung. Chung-kuo I, 35. C

  30. A monk reading in the moonlight. Ueno. Inscription by the monk Ching-shan, pupil of Wu-chen, Kokka, No. 87. B?

  31. A priest sewing his mantle. Count Date. Inscription by the monk Tung-sou, probably a Yuan painting. Kokka, No. 314.

  32. The fifth Chan patriarch carrying a hoe. H. Marjeyama Collection. The poem referring to the motif, signed Wu-I. Toso, p. 114 B?

  33. A set of three: (a) Feng-kan with a tiger; (b) Sparrows on a bamboo branch; (c) Sparrows on a willow branch. seals of the painter, probably old imitations Formerly marquis Kuroda. B?

  34. Wei-to-lo in the guise of a rugged old man. Noda. Kokka, No. 425. C

  35. The Chan monk Hsuan-cho. Moriya, Kyoto. Probably a Yuan painting by a close follower. B?

  36. Han-shan the Chan monk. Owned by ? Inscription by Tao Lung (ca. 1245), a later picture. Soraikan II, plate 18. C

  37. The autumn moon. Prince Tokugawa Collection. Nagoya Museum. Siren #348. A

  38. The night rain. Baron Masuda. Siren #341. A

  39. The evening bell from a distant temple. Hakateyama. Shimbi No. Five. A

  40. Sails distant from the coast returning to port. Count Matsudaira. Kokka, No. 291. A

  41. The sunset on a fishing village. M. Nezu. Kokka, No. 340. A

  42. Wild geese lighting. Viscount Matsudaira. Kokka, No. 410. A

  43. Evening snow on the hills. Suenobu. Destroyed in the air raid on Sendai, Honshu, Japan, 1945. Sogen Meigashu II. A

  44. The evening bell. Yada in Katayamazu, Japan. Sogen Meigashu II.

  45. Misty river in spring with a ferry. Viscount Akimoto. Album leaf. Kokka, No. 481. B

  46. An arhat in meditation encircled by a snake. Seikado. Seal of the painter. Kokka, No. 233. A?

  47. A triptych: (a) Kuan-yin; (b) Monkey with her baby on a pine branch; (c) Crane in a bamboo grove. Daitokuji, Kyoto. Were probably combined after importation into Japan in the 14th century. Signed with the seal of the painter. Kokka, No. 185; No. 265. A

  48. Bodhidharma. Abe. Head and shoulder only. Seal of the painter; probably Japanese. Sogen, plate 2. C

  49. Lao-tsu. M. Suenobu. Seal of the painter. Destroyed in the air raid on Sendai, 1945. Toso, p. 109. A?

  50. White-robed Kuan-yin. S. Yamoka. Japanese copy after the one at Daitokumi. Sogen, p. 25.

  51. A monkey on a rock. Owned by ? Album leaf. Hikkoen, p. 32 C

  52. Monkeys playing among trees and on rocks by a stream. Sakai. Handscroll, seal of the painter. Shimbi XI. C

  53. A monkey resting on a projecting rock. Noda. Kokka, No. 425. C

  54. A monkey with her baby hanging from a bamboo. Noda Collection, Kyoto. Seal of the painter. C

  55. Chestnuts. Ryuko-in. Album leaf. Kokka, No. 493. A?

  56. Peonies. Daitokuji. Not listed by Siren. Cohn.

  57. Rose-mallows in rain. Soken-in. Album leaf. Sogen Meigashu, 36. A?

  58. Mynah on the trunk of a pine tree. Daitokuji. Seal of the painter. Kokka, No. 218. B

  59. Turtle doves on a bamboo stalk. Matsudaira. Toso, p. 110. B

  60. The shrike standing on a rock. Cohn. Toyo 9, 93. B?

  61. Wild geese screen. State Museum, Berlin. Seal of the painter. C

  62. Handscroll, long, representing various kinds of birds, vegetables, and flowers, all carefully rendered from nature. Nanking Exhibition Catalogue, p. 31. Signed by the painter and dated 1265. A

  63. Pigeons on an old tree trunk. K. Hirase, Osaka. Kokka, No. 177. B?

  64. Swallows and a spray of willow. Marquis Tokugawa, Nagoya. Kokka, No. 242. B

  65. Two swallows in a willow tree. Seikado. Shimbi XVII. B?

  66. A heron by a faded lotus leaf. Marquis Inouye. Inscription by the monk Skukyu, probably Japanese. Kokka, No. 293. C

  67. Hen, chickens, and puppies. Marquis Inouye. Handscroll, seal of the painter. Shimbi XIV. C

  68. Two sparrows on a bare branch. Nezu. A good picture, though not by Mu Chi. Sogen Meigashu, 37. B

  69. A magpie and a kingfisher. Hakone Museum. Seals of the painter, probably a Japanese painting. Bijutsu Kenkyu, 26.

  70. A turtle dove resting on a leafless branch. Owned by ? Probably Japanese. Muto Catalogue No. 3. C

  71. Persimmons. Ryuko-in. Album leaf. Kokka, No. 493. B. Internet:

  72. A lotus root on a lotus leaf. H. Mayeyama. Album leaf. Toso, p. 115. B?

  73. Radish. Owned by ? Kokka, No. 486. This picture is not listed in Siren. Kokka says it aims at representing the taste of the light food taken at monasteries of the temples of the sect (Zen). None can surpass the present picture of a radish. Tradition has it that this picture simply was presented to the Shogun Yoshimitsu Ashikaga from the then King of Ming.

  74. Head of a dragon; tiger (a diptych). Daitokuji. Signatures dated 1269 are later additions. Probably early Yuan. Kokka, No. 190.

  75. Pair: (a) Head of a dragon; (b) Tiger. Daitokuji. Shimbi II. B?

  76. Dragon among the vaporous clouds. Viscount Akimoto. Seal of the painter. Kokka, No. 209. B?

  77. A dragon. Nezu. Handscroll. Toso, p. 106. C

  78. A tiger. Marquis Tokugawa, Nagoya. Kokka, No. 268. C

    Jo-fen or Ying Yu Chien

  79. Mountain town in clearing mist. Yoshikawa Eiji, Kokka, No. 429. Internet: Village in clearing mist,

  80. Harvest moon over Tung-Ting lake. Commission for the preservation of cultural property. Siren #346.

  81. Fishing boats returning to the bay. Tokugawa Museum, Nagoya.

  82. Orchid plant has been ascribed to Yu Chien Jo-fen. Inscription by Yen Chi, Kuang-wen, a monk of the Ching Tzu temple (1189-1263), where Yin Yu Chien lived. Geion Shinsho 9. Siren doesn't think it is Yu Chien's, as it is in the text (p. 144), but not on the lists.

  83. Mountains rising over a low beach with dark trees. M. Murayama of Osaka. A later picture. Sogen Meigashu, plate 46. B?

  84. The summit of Lu-shan or view of Lu-shan in mist. Yoshikawa, Eigi. Portion of a handscroll. Siren #347.

  85. A beach at the foot of undulating hills. Owned by ? Short handscroll. The picture is in bad condition but may be of the period. Muto Collection Catalogue II, 2.

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